Download e-book for iPad: Attachment Devices of Insect Cuticle by Stanislav S. N. Gorb
By Stanislav S. N. Gorb
In 1974 while I released my booklet, organic Mechanism of Attachment, now not many pages have been required to document at the attachment units of insect cuticles. As in such a lot fields of study, our wisdom in this particular topic has easily exploded. Dr. Stanislav N. Gorb now describes the current day point of our wisdom, to which he has in my view contributed rather a lot, and a learn group engaged on organic microtribology has steadily constructed, additionally. With sleek equipment of size it truly is attainable to go into the constitution – functionality courting even more deeply, even right down to a molecular point, which was once impossible and a part many years in the past. it's a renowned proven fact that, in biology, the extra subtle the measuring approach, the higher the fulfillment of organic primary study, and its ensuing proof. Our wisdom is still at a undeniable point until eventually new tools once again enable a ahead jump. organic wisdom develops within the type of a stepped curve instead of linear, as mirrored within the stories conducted at the attachment units of insect cuticles.
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Additional info for Attachment Devices of Insect Cuticle
Numerous specialised, hook-like structures are found in parasitic arthropods, adapted for attachment to particular surfaces of the host body. 1 Hooking to the substratum Terrestrial locomotion is always connected with the attachment of extremities to the substratum. The most common example of the hook-like attachment device is the tarsal claw, which is used to interlock with surface texture during locomotion. Prolegs of butterfly caterpillars bear hooks, or crochets, surrounding the proleg sucker.
4) Rubber-like proteins (Weis-Fogh, 1960; 1961). (5) Water (Hepburn and Chandler, 1976; Hepburn and Joffe, 1976). The interplay of these components results in the wide spectrum of properties. Cuticles can be functionally grouped into (1) the so-called «solid» cuticle, typical for sclerites, apodems, phragmata, mandibles and claws; (2) thin arhrodial membranous cuticle, as well as, the cuticle of caterpillars; and (3) resilin-containing cuticle, from tendons of the flight muscles, springs of mouthparts, and wing articulations (Weis-Fogh, 1960; 1961).
There are four main types of processes: (1) the multicellular processes, in which the epidermal cells are not differentiated and are simply underlying the process; (2) the multicellular processes, in which the epidermal cells are differentiated into several specialised cells; (3) the unicellular processes; and (4) the subcellular 23 processes, where there is more than one projection per cell. Smooth cuticle, as an additional principle, may also be taken into account. 2. SPINES AND HORNS Spines and horns are multicellular processes without differentiation of cells.
Attachment Devices of Insect Cuticle by Stanislav S. N. Gorb