New PDF release: An Introduction to the Invertebrates
By Janet Moore
Moore's creation is short, yet informative. established within the common layout for a zoology textbook, she covers the fundamentals fast and good, after which increases fascinating questions that pertain to no matter what phylum is in query. Having already performed coursework in invertebrates, i discovered this an outstanding refresher and nonetheless jam-packed with issues i didn't understand (or had thoroughly forgotten).
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Extra resources for An Introduction to the Invertebrates
The functioning of these eyes is not understood. There are eyes even in the (unusually simple) larvae; there is no nerve net in these larvae but a flagellum is directly rooted in each eye cup. 4 Reproduction This may be asexual: as described earlier, Hydra polyps bud and the buds separate from their parent. Without separation, the same process can result in the growth of a colony. More commonly reproduction is sexual, achieved by the release of eggs and sperm into the sea. 5 Life history Anthozoa have no medusa in the life cycle.
At present fossil evidence starts life too late, perhaps due to missing fossils, and molecular evidence starts life too early, perhaps due to statistical bias. The two estimates are converging, but seem unlikely to meet firmly. In conclusion, clearly fossils must be included in phylogenetic reconstruction, although cladistic analysis of fossils is especially vulnerable to lack of information about characters and to underestimation of convergence. We do risk overemphasising characters fossilised by chance but, as with any method, we have to work with what we have got.
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An Introduction to the Invertebrates by Janet Moore