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By S. Holgate, et. al.
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A positive association between the phenotype and the allele will occur if the allele is the cause of, or contributes to, the phenotype. This association would be expected to be replicated in other populations with the same phenotype, unless there are several different alleles at the same locus contributing to the same phenotype, in which case association would be difficult to detect, or if the trait was predominantly the result of different genes in the other population (genetic heterogeneity), or depended on interaction with an environmental exposure not present in the replication population.
Necrosis is always associated with loss of intracellular mediators and enzymes into the extracellular environment and the consequential potential induction of an inflammatory response. Biochemically, apoptosis is characterized by a controlled autodigestion of the cell. Intracellular proteases called caspases are essential mediators of the apoptotic death machinery. Caspases are processed by cleavage at specific aspartate residues to form active heterodimeric enzymes. It appears that caspases work in a hierarchical system similar to other proteolytic cascades such as complement activation or blood coagulation.
In some of these subjects, a late phase response occurs after 3–4 hours and reaches a maximum at 6–12 hours (Fig. 31). The mechanism of bronchoconstriction is complex and results from a combination of bronchial smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability leading to oedema, and increased airway mucus production. Histamine, PGD2, and CysLTs all have the ability to contract human bronchial smooth muscle. In addition to causing bronchoconstriction, histamine and the CysLTs can increase vascular permeability and stimulate mucus production.
Allergy by S. Holgate, et. al.