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By Geoffrey Burnstock Ph.D., D.Sc., F.A.A., Marcello Costa (auth.)
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Additional info for Adrenergic Neurons: Their Organization, Function and Development in the Peripheral Nervous System
Furthermore, MAO decreases in tissues following surgical or immunochemical adrenergic denervation (Burn & Robinson, 1954; Stromblad, 1956; Snyder, Fischer & Axelrod, 1965; Almgren, Anden, J onason, Norberg & Olson, 1966; Iversen, Glowinski &Axelrod, 1966; Jarrott & Langer, 1971; Jarrott, 1971a; Jarrott & Iversen, 1971; Klingman & Klingman, 1972a). Extraneuronal MAO has also been demonstrated in both smooth and cardiac muscle cells supplied by adrenergic nerves (Su & Bevan, 1971; Jarrott, 1971a; Jarrott & Langer, 1971; de la Lande & Johnson, 1972; Burnstock, McLean & Wright, 1971; Burnstock, McCulloch, Story & Wright, 1972).
32 STRUCTURE OF ADRENERGIC NEURONS AND RELATED CELLS Studies by Dahlstrom and her collaborators (see Dahlstrom, 1971) suggest that as adrenergic vesicles are transported down the axon, there is an increase of their NA content. A similar increasing gradient of ACh towards the distal parts of cholinergic nerves has also been reported (Evans & Saunders, 1967). Nerve impulse activity (at least in short-term experiments) does not appear to significantly alter the rate ofNA transport (Geffen & Rush, 1968; Table a Absolute rates of transport for enzymes present in adrenergic axons in rat sciatic nerve (from Wooten and Coyle, I973) D~H T-OH Dopa-decarboxylase MAO COMT 138-185 mm d- 1 106-167 mm d- 1 36-86 mm d- 1 3 mm d-1 3 mm d-1 Dahlstrom, 1971).
Presence of an electron transport chain in the vesicles possibly related to D,BH (see Lagercrantz, 1971). Another enzyme, an Mg2+-dependent adenosine-3'-phosphatase, has been detected in these vesicles (Lagercrantz, 1971). In studies made on adrenergic nerves, using sucrose gradient centrifugation, two types of NA storage particles have been isolated: a heavy particle and a light particle (Potter, 1966; Stjarne, 1966; Austin, Livett & Chubb, 1967; Bisby & Fillenz, 1971; Lagercrantz, 1971; De Potter, Chubb & De Schaepdryver, 1972) which have been equated with large and small granular vesicles respectively (Bisby & Fillenz, 1971; Klein & Thureson-Klein, 1971; Lagercrantz, 1971; Smith, 1972a; Figures).
Adrenergic Neurons: Their Organization, Function and Development in the Peripheral Nervous System by Geoffrey Burnstock Ph.D., D.Sc., F.A.A., Marcello Costa (auth.)