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By Susanne Klaus
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Extra info for Adipose Tissues
102 Adipogenic Factors that Trigger Adipocyte Differentiation The responsiveness of preadipose cells to external signals may vary according to differences in the stage of adipose lineage at which clonal lines have been established and that at which cells of a given line are exposed to various agents. Moreover, the requirement for adipogenic hormones shows differences between clonal and primary preadipocytes. Last but not least, serum-supplemented media are (too) often used. As many serum components are uncharacterized and thus not controllable, the use of serum-free chemically-defined media appears more appropriate.
L: lipid droplet; Pl: platlets. 11,200x. 22 Adipose Tissues appear in the cytoplasm of poorly differentiated cells. We distinguish two stages in this step of differentiation: stage 2 (adipoblast stage 2) in which the lipids are in a unilocular form and stage 3 (adipocyte precursors) in which lipids are disposed in a multilocular form. Adipoblasts and precursors are visible in the anlage during all intrauterine life and in IBAT in the first weeks of development after birth. Adipoblasts are always tightly connected with the capillary wall, and many pericytes with the morphological characteristics of adipoblasts are visible in the capillary walls during the very early stages of anlage development (E15-E17).
The fine regulation of p18, p21 and p27 CKIs has allowed to define distinct states of growth arrest during clonal expansion and terminal differentiation. 84 Collectively, these observations indicate that PPAR# induces cell cycle withdrawal and terminal differentiation accompanied by irreversible growth arrest. 89 It is also of interest to note that C/EBP∀ and ∃ exhibit a delayed acquisition of DNA binding activity, between 12 and 16 h after induction of differentiation. This acquisition depends probably upon their phosphorylation, as it occurs immediately before phosphorylation of pRB and entry into the S phase of the cell cycle.
Adipose Tissues by Susanne Klaus