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By S. Betzelt, S. Bothfeld
This publication analyzes in what manner activation rules influence on given styles of social citizenship that predominate in nationwide contexts. It argues that the liberal paradigm of activation brought into labour industry guidelines in all Western ecu states demanding situations the categorical styles of social citizenship in every one state.
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Extra info for Activation and Labour Market Reforms in Europe: Challenges to Social Citizenship
H. Marshall, the politics of social policy is not solely about defending individual entitlements or protecting the weakest for functional reasons but represents an acrimonious political battle about the deﬁnition of the collective good of social rights (Marshall, 1963). We think that it is the basic political characteristic of social rights that is denied by neoclassic social policy strategies and that is, in our view, sometimes neglected 12 Introduction: Challenges to Social Citizenship in social policy analysis.
3. Social rights and the argument of membership We think that the concept of social citizenship contributes a missing link to our problem, namely to provide categories to grasp ongoing change – as it points to the very political character of social policy, rights and membership. Quite early in the ‘golden age’ of the welfare state T. H. Marshall pointed to the very political character of social policy. Since then social rights have been considered to be a crucial precondition for citizens’ active participation in social and political life and, therefore, constitutive elements of an active and democratic society (Marshall, 1963).
How is regulation implemented and how do local practices at the nexus between public service delivery and citizens’ needs impact on the state–citizen relationship? We should thus not delimit our subject matter to the most obvious patterns of social policy reforms but rather take a very close and differentiated look at the instruments, the ﬁne mechanisms and tools of activation reforms; the whole set of instruments and ‘steering’ techniques being at stake (for the ‘instrument approach’, see, for example, Lascoumes and Le Galès, 2007).
Activation and Labour Market Reforms in Europe: Challenges to Social Citizenship by S. Betzelt, S. Bothfeld